The Geographical Society of China is one of the earliest established academic societies in China. Her predecessor is the Geoscience Society of China organized by Zhang Xiangwen in Tianjin in 1909. In 1934, Zhu Kezhen, a well-known scientist, founded the Geographical Society of China in Nanjing. At the founding of the P.R.China, the two organizations were merged into the current Geographical Society of China in 1950.
The society aims at promoting the scientific research, encouraging the full participation of its members and geographers across the country, popularizing national geographical knowledge, train qualified professionals, making contribution to the socialist modernization drive, and developing the socialist material and spiritual civilization.
The Society has more than 20,000 members, who are geographical workers from research institutes, colleges and universities, middle schools and governmental agencies etc..
There are 31 provincial societies located in the capitals of provinces and autonomous regions, as well as the municipalities of Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and Chongqing (not including Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao). The Society has established 16 special commissions (SC), 6 working commissions (WC), 7 branch societies (BS) and an editorial board as follows.
The Society publishes 10 kind of periodical, including 《Journal of Geographical Sciences》、《Acta Geographica Sinica》（in Chinese）、《Chinese National Geography》（in Chinese and Japanese）. Also the society edit and publish some academic books and conference proceedings.
In 1949, the Society joined the International Geographical Union (IGU). In 1983, the Glaciology & Geocryology BS joined the International Permafrost Association (IPA). In 1989, the Geomorphology & Quaternary Studies SC joined the International Association for Geomorphologist (IAG).